Coupling 3-D Multiphase Reaction, Radiation and CFD

GLACIER is intended for modeling three dimensional reacting and non-reacting two-phase flow of gases and particles or droplets in complex geometries. Typical applications include coal-fired utility boilers, metallurgical processing furnaces, rotary kilns, and decoking process heaters. Particular emphasis is placed on combustion and gasification of pulverized coal and on pollutant formation and destruction.


  • Complex three-dimensional geometries
  • Polydispersed phases of gases and particles, droplets or slurries with full mass, momentum and energy coupling between phases
  • Multiple reaction rate processes for liquid vaporization, coal devolatization and heterogeneous particle reactions
  • Steady state, laminar or turbulent flows
  • Mixing and reaction of multiple fuels
  • Full coupling between turbulent fluid mechanics, radiative and convective heat transfer, and chemical reactions
  • Radiative heat transfer for scattering-absorbing-emitting, turbulent, sooting media
  • NOx/SOx formation and destruction
  • Variable thermal boundary conditions including adiabatic, thermal resistance, “heat exchanger”
  • Prediction of particle trajectories, concentrations and dispersion
  • Slagging, particle deposition
  • Soot


  • Burner and furnace design
  • Coal combustion and gasification
  • Cyclone barrels & other metallurgical processes
  • Coal slurries, liquid sprays
  • Waste incineration
  • Diffusion flames
  • Pollutant formation and destruction
  • SNCR
  • Radiation in participating media
  • Computational fluid dynamics


  • Robust, accurate, iterative solvers to extract the non-linear coupling between turbulent fluid mechanics
  • Gas phase reaction chemistry (including NOx)
  • Heat transfer (particularly radiation)
  • Particle phase reaction
  • Turbulent particle dispersion
  • Particle-wall or heat transfer surface interactions
  • Particle/fluid interphase coupling is included through a moving-Eulerian particle cloud tracking and source distribution technique
  • Computations of turbulent fluctuations include statistical distributions for all reaction and radiation properties
  • Reaction and radiation calculations can include any number of chemical species